July 2018 Edition
  1. xEV Market Trends 2010 to 2025
    1. Overview
      • Recent EV-Market Boosters
      • Market Drivers
      • In 2010 to 2016, most automakers introduced ‘Compliance Cars’, compact, subcompact, and city EVs with 70- to 100-mile ranges
      • Battery-EVs: Main Development and Direction
      • PHEVs: Main Development and Direction
      • Strong HEVs: Main Development and Direction
      • Mild to Advanced Micro-HEVs (MHEVs): Main Development and Direction
      • Powertrain Electrification and Impact on CO2 Emissions
      • xEV Market Drivers and Market Share by Category
    2. Vehicle Markets by Region
      • Current Chinese xEV Market Trends: Market Drivers – Government
      • China NEV Subsidy 2018 versus 2017
      • Current Chinese xEV Market Trends: Market Drivers – Automakers
      • Chinese e-Bus Industry
      • Chinese “Logistic EVs”
      • Chinese NEV (PHEV + EV) Market, 000 units
      • Chinese xEVs – The Bottom Line
      • Current European xEV Market Trends – Market Drivers
      • Current European xEV Market Trends – EVs
      • Current European xEV Market Trends – PHEVs
      • Current European xEV Market Trends – Strong Hybrids (HEVs)
      • Current European xEV Market Trends – Mild Hybrids (MHEVs)
      • Current European xEV Market Trends – Micro Hybrids (μHEVs)
      • Current U.S. xEV Market Trends – Market Drivers
      • Current U.S. xEV Market Trends – EVs
      • Current U.S. xEV Market Trends – PHEVs
      • Current U.S. xEV Market Trends – Strong HEVs
      • Current U.S. xEV Market Trends – MHEVs
      • U.S. 2017 HEV Sales
      • Current Japanese xEV Market Trends – Hybrids
      • Current Japanese xEV Market Trends – PHEVs/EVs
      • Current xEV Market Trends – Rest of the World (ROW)
    3. Vehicle Market Forecast to 2020
      • HEV Market by Vehicle Producer 2010 – 2020
      • HEV Market by Vehicle Producer 2010 – 2020, Excluding Toyota and Honda
      • HEV Market by Hybrid Category
      • HEV Market by World Region 2009 to 2020
      • Chinese NEV Sales – 000 units
      • EV Market Forecast
      • EV Market Forecast – Excluding Chinese Automakers
      • PHEV Market by Producer
      • EV Market (Forecast) by World Region
      • EV Market Growth by World Region
      • PHEV Market Forecast by World Region
    4. Vehicle Market Forecast Beyond 2020
      • EV Market Development to 2025 and Beyond
      • Market Growth Beyond 2015 – Customer Pull?
      • xEV Market Driver and Share by Category
      • 2025 xEV Market Share Forecast by Region: Our Baseline Estimate
      • 2025 xEV Market Forecast by Region
      • 2030 xEV Market Share Forecast by Region: Our Baseline Estimate
      • 2030 xEV Market Forecast by Region
    5. Directions of Individual Carmakers
      • Toyota / Lexus
      • 2001-17 Toyota HEV Family
      • Toyota Motors Corporation 2001-17 Toyota/Lexus HEV Family
      • Volkswagen / Audi / Porsche (1)
      • Volkswagen / Audi / Porsche (2)
      • Volkswagen / Audi / Porsche (3)
      • Volkswagen / Audi / Porsche (4)
      • General Motors
      • 2011-17 Chevy Volt; 2014-16 Cadillac ELR; 2017 Cadillac CT6
      • Ford Motor Company
      • 2005-17 Ford HEV Family
      • Nissan
      • Renault
      • Honda
      • BMW Group
      • 2014-17 BMW i3 EV
      • Hyundai Motor Group
      • 2011-17 Hyundai Sonata & 2017 Ioniq, 2011-17 Kia Optima & 2017 Niro
      • Mitsubishi Motor Corporation (MMC)
      • Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
      • 2017 Chrysler Pacifica PHEV
      • Daimler
      • Daimler Battery Types
      • Volvo Group
      • 2013-16 Volvo V60 PHEV; 2016-17 Volvo XC90 PHEV; 2017 Volvo S90 PHEV
      • PSA Group
      • Tesla Motors
      • Tesla’s Impact on Electric Vehicle Design
      • Tesla’s Impact of the EV/Battery Industry
  2. Lithium-Ion Battery Technology for xEVs
    1. Key Design Parameters
      • Historical xEV Battery Development
      • xEV Battery Technology Overview
      • The Lithium-Ion Cell
      • Li-Ion Cell Stack
      • Cell Design & Casing : Pouch, Cylindrical, or Prismatic
      • Cell Casing: Cylindrical
      • Cell Casing : Prismatic and Pouch
      • Cathode Chemistry: Ni-Based
      • Cathode: NMC is the Focus for Large-Cell EV Batteries
      • Cathode Chemistry: Other
      • Anode: Graphite-Based
      • Status of Graphite
      • Si-Blend Anode
      • Electrolytes
      • Separator
      • Solid Electrolyte/Separator?
      • xEV Battery Power and Energy Level vs. Applications
      • xEV Battery Pack Energy Density vs. Power Level
      • xEV Battery Cost vs. Energy
      • Module Technology
    2. Mild and Strong Hybrid Batteries
      • Requirements
        • Batteries for Strong Hybrids
        • 2001-17 Toyota HEV NiMH: Battery Pack Parameters
        • HEV Li-Ion Cell Current Design Matrix
        • Li-Ion Prismatic Metal-Can Cells Involved in Production HEVs
        • Li-Ion HEV Cell Materials Cost
        • Li-Ion HEV: Key Cost Components
      • Cell and Pack Design, and Cost
        • 48V Mild Hybrids: Battery Requirements and Selection
        • 48V Battery Solutions
        • Audi 48V Battery System Requirements
        • 48V, 0.37-kWh Liquid-Cooled SDI Pack for Jeep Wrangler
        • LG Chem 9.8-Ah Pouch Cell for Mild Hybrids
        • 10-Ah MHEV Cell Price 2020
        • 48V MHEV, 2025 Cell Materials Cost
        • 48V MHEV, 2025 Cell Price
        • 48V Cell and Battery Design Evolution
        • Audi’s 48V Battery System Requirement Evolution Forecast
        • 14V Micro-2 Hybrids: Energy-Storage Solutions
        • Micro-2 Hybrids: Energy-Storage Solutions (2)
        • Micro-2 Hybrids: Energy-Storage Solutions (3)
        • Low-Voltage Hybrid Li-Ion Cell Design
    3. EV & PHEV Battery Technology
      • PHEV Battery Technology Evolution
        • Battery Pack Capacity for PHEVs
        • PHEV Battery Pack – Specific Energy
        • PHEV Battery Pack – Capacity vs. Launch Year
        • PHEV Battery Pack – Specific Energy vs. Launch Year
        • PHEV Cell and Pack – 2017 Market
        • Mercedes PHEV Battery-Pack Parameters
        • GM Volt 2/Volt 1 Battery Comparison
        • PHEV-2 Roadmap
      • EV Cell and Battery Design, Energy & Power Density
        • EV Pack Key Characteristics since 1996
        • Battery Packs for EVs vs. Launch Year
        • Li-Ion Cells Employed in EVs 2008-2017
        • Key Characteristics of EV Cells Utilized in EV Packs 2017
        • Battery Packs for EVs – Specific Energy vs. Launch Year
        • Specific Energy of EV Battery Packs
        • Cells Delivering 600Wh/liter are Being Qualified
        • VW’s Aggressive Technology Roadmap
        • Li-Ion Cell Energy Density Evolution
        • Where is the improvement in energy density coming from?
      • Life and Safety
        • EV & PHEV Battery Life
        • Tesla Battery Capacity versus Driven km (as published by Tesla Drivers Club)
        • Li-Ion Battery Safety
        • Safety at Module and Pack Levels
        • Safety: Key Issues
        • Safety Enhancement and its Cost
        • Fast Charge & Battery Design
        • Impact of Fast Charge on Cost and Energy Density
        • Fast-Charge Tesla Batteries: about 50% in 30 minutes
    4. EV and PHEV Battery Cost
      • Cost of Materials
        • Nickel Metal Pricing $US/metric ton
        • Cobalt Pricing $US/metric ton
        • Lithium Pricing
        • NMC (6,2,2) Cost Estimate 2017 to 2020 Average
        • NCA (90,5,5) Cost 2018-2020
        • NCA (8, 1, 1) Cost 2025
        • 37-Ah PHEV Cell Materials Cost
        • 3.4-Ah 18650 Cell Materials Cost
        • 21700 Cell Materials Cost – 2020 
        • 56-Ah EV Pouch Cell Materials Cost
      • Cell and Battery Cost
        • 37-Ah PHEV Cell Price
        • Cell Price for a 44 Ah Prismatic PHEV cell (2020)
        • 3.4-Ah 18650 Cell Price, 2016
        • 56-Ah EV Pouch Cell Price, 2018
        • 21700 Cell Price, 2020
        • 65Ah Pouch Cell Price, 2020
        • 78Ah EV Pouch Cell Price Estimate, 2025
      • Cost Reduction Trajectory
        • PHEV Battery Price Trends
        • VW’s Aggressive (unrealistic) Price Target for Cells and Packs
        • GM’s Roadmap for EV Cell Pricing, Chevy Bolt
        • EV Battery Price Trends
        • Cost-Reduction Roadmaps—Issues
        • EV Battery Cost Estimate
        • xEV Battery Cost and Pricing
  3. Battery Technology: Is there a Future Beyond Lithium Ion?
    1. xEV Batteries’ Desired Attributes and Characteristics of 2025 Li-Ion Batterie
      • Automakers' Expectations for Key Performance Values of Battery-EV Li-Ion Cells
      • Automakers' Expectations of Li Ion BEV 2025
      • Fast-Pace Expansion History of Li-Ion Batteries
      • Future Automotive Cell Requirements - Other Applications
      • Direction of Automotive Li-Ion Battery Development
      • So What is the BEV Cell Development Matrix?
      • Automakers' EV-Battery Needs for Faster BEV Expansion Beyond 2028
    2. Anode Opportunities: Silicon and Metallic Lithium
      • Silicon-based Anodes
      • Silicon Anode Pre-Lithiation
      • Metallic Lithium Anode
      • 1975-1977, Li/TiS2 and LiAl/TiS2 Rechargeable Cells - EXXON
      • 1986-1990: Li/MoS2 Rechargeable Cells – Moli Energy
      • Valence Technology 1994 Li/’Wet’ Polymer/VOx Cell Phone Cells
      • Li-Metal Rechargeable Batteries
      • Li-Metal Anode Cost and Processing
      • Lithium Foil Pricing
      • Metallic Li Anode – The Electrolyte Challenge
    3. Solid Electrolyte: Promise and Challenges
      • Solid Electrolyte for Lithium-Metal Rechargeable Batteries
      • Solid Electrolytes – High-Level View
      • Challenges of Solid Electrolytes in all Solid-State Li-Metal Cells
      • Solid-State Batteries: Overview
      • Many Electrolyte Families Under Development
      • Limitations of Solid Electrolytes
      • Key Characteristics of Contending Solid Electrolytes
      • Solid Polymer Electrolytes ‘Dry’ (SPE) and ‘Gels’
      • Ionic Conductivity of Inorganic Solid Electrolytes
      • The Lithium Protective Layer: Status and Challenges
      • The Lithium Protective-Layer Approach
      • Protected Li Metal Anodes
    4. Li/SE versus C-Gr/LE; Energy Density and Cost
      • Li-NMC: the Most Promising of the ‘Future Technologies
      • Volumetric Energy Density – Li-NMC versus Gr-NMC Cell Design Matrix
      • Volumetric Energy Density – Li/NMC versus Gr-NMC Cells
      • Li-NMC: Can we achieve cost parity with Gr-NMC?
      • Li/NMC versus Gr-Si/NMC
    5. Cathode Development: Is There a Future Beyond High-Nickel NMC?
      • Li/Air or Li/Sulfur Chemistries – Volumetric Energy Density
      • Li Ion versus Li/S – Battery Requirement Spider Diagram
      • A solid cathode with higher energy is a long-term necessity
    6. Future EV Battery Technology Synopsis
      • Beyond Li Ion before 2030?
      • CONCLUSIONS: Beyond Li Ion for Mass-Market EVs?
      • Conclusions: Post-Li-Ion Opportunity
      • What is the Automakers’ True Evaluation of Post Li Ion for EVs? Hype or Real Promise?
  4. xEV Battery Market Forecast to 2025
    1. xEV Battery Market Overview
      • xEV Battery Market Overview
      • 2017 Automotive Li-Ion Battery Market
      • xEV Battery Pack Business
      • 2020 Automotive Li-Ion Battery Market
      • xEV Li-Ion Battery Market 2020
      • 2025 Automotive Li-Ion Battery Market
    2. Mild and Strong Hybrids
      • Strong HEV OEM/Supplier Relationships
      • Mild HEV OEM/Supplier Relationships
      • HEV Battery-Pack Market
      • Li-Ion HEV Battery Module Market
    3. EVs and PHEV
      • PHEV OEM/Supplier Relationships
      • PHEV Battery Cell Market by Producer
      • EV OEM/Supplier Relationships
      • EV Battery Cell Market by Producer
      • Combined EV & PHEV Cell Market by Producer
      • xEV Battery Shipments by Chinese Producer, MWh
      • Automotive Li-Ion Battery Business – 2025 Base Case
      • 2030 xEV Battery Business – Base Case
    4. Demand for Materials
      • HEV Cell Materials Demand 2020
      • PHEV-EV Cell Materials Demand 2020
      • xEV 2020 Key Cell Materials
      • 2025 xEV Battery Materials Demand
      • xEV 2025 Key Raw Materials Demand Forecast
    5. Directions of Individual Cell Makers
      • Panasonic
      • LG Chem Automotive Batteries: Global Footprint
      • LG Chem Key Product
      • LG Chem Cells and Packs
      • LG Chem EV Cells
      • LG Chem Cells and Pack – 2017 Chrysler Pacifica PHEV
      • LG Chem Cells and Packs for Volvo PHEVs
      • LG Chem – PHEV Battery Cells
      • LG Chem – Other
      • Samsung SDI
      • CATL
      • Chinese Market – Battery Makers
      • AESC Advanced Energy Supply Corporation
      • GS Yuasa Group
      • SK Innovation
      • Toshiba
      • Hitachi Vehicle Energy
      • A123 Systems
      • Johnson Controls
  5. Appendix
    1. Levels of Vehicle Hybridization
      • Levels of Vehicle Hybridization/Electrification
      • Key Hybrid Functions
      • Which level of electrification?
      • Micro-1 Hybrids (Stop/Start)
      • Micro-2 Hybrids
      • 48V Mild Hybrids
      • 100-140V Mild Hybrids
      • Strong Hybrids
      • Plug-in Hybrids
      • History of EV Battery Development
      • Electric Vehicles
      • Fuel-Cell Vehicles
      • Heavy-Duty Vehicles
    2. Lead-Acid and NiMH HEV Batteries and Ultracapacitors
      • Enhanced  Flooded Lead-Acid Battery Design (Exide)
      • Valve-Regulated Lead Acid
      • Lead Acid in Future Automotive
      • EC Capacitors
      • Nickel Metal Hydride HEV Cells
      • Commercial Status of NiMH
      • Lead Acid Producers – U.S. & Europe
      • Lead Acid Producers – Japan
      • NiMH producers Primearth EV Energy