1. Background and Fundamentals of Battery Safety
    1. Battery Safety Fundamentals
      • Safety is Influenced by All Other Parameters
      • What are the Critical Safety Concerns for Batteries?
      • Batteries Contain Very Reactive Materials
      • Gravimetric Energy Densities (Wh/kg) for Various Types of Rechargeable Batteries Compared to Gasoline
      • Specific Energy of Li Ion had Increased ~10%/yr. and New Anode Materials may Help Keep that Trend
      • Li Ion Cell Energy vs.TNT
      • Approaches to Improving Safety
      • Improving Safety: Objectives
      • Safety Evaluation Should be Done on Many Levels
    2. Examples of Recent Safety Recalls
      • CPSC Recalls
      • Battery Recalls in the U.S
      • Examples of Battery Incidents
    3. Hazards & Thermal Runaway
      • Potential Hazards that May Arise from Battery Failure
      • Potential Hazards (1)
      • Potential Hazards (2)
      • Anatomy of Cell Failure
      • Another Description of Cell Failure
      • Description of Thermal Runaway
      • Thermal Runaway
      • Video of Thermal Runaway Over Temperature Test (1)
      • Video of Thermal Runaway Over Temperature Test (2)
      • Video of Thermal Runaway Over Charge Test
      • Maximum Temperature During Thermal Runaway Often Exceeds 660°C
    4. Cell Failures
      • Causes of Cell Failure
        • Causes of Cell Failure – Overview
        • Electrical Abuse
        • Abuse of Li-Ion Cells and Modules Can Be Extremely Violent
        • Mechanical Abuse and Immersion
        • Thermal Abuse
        • Thermal Runaway Temperatures are Very High
        • Internal Short Circuit – Abuse/Misuse
        • Internal Short Circuit – Manufacturing Defect
        • Internal Short Circuit: Li Dendrites Background
        • Li Dendrites: When are they formed?
        • What Happens when Li Touches the Cathode?
        • Do Li Dendrites Cause Thermal Runaway?
      • Event Probability and Risk
        • How do These Failures Create a Safety Risk?
        • Definition of Severity – Automotive Example
        • Probability = Likelihood = Rate of Occurrence (ROO)
        • Hazard Risk Number (HRN)
        • Strategy for Managing Risk
    5. Safety Devices
      • Mechanical Components
        • Safety Devices
        • Structure of Cylindrical Li-Ion Batteries
        • Cell Construction – Physical Assembly
        • Cell Construction – Jelly Roll
        • Burst Disk (Cell Vent) or Tear Away Tab
        • Video of Cell Vent
        • Current Interrupt Device (CID)
        • Cell Construction – Header
        • Cell Construction – Header Safety Features
        • Current Limiting Fuses
        • Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC)
        • Diodes
      • Separator
        • Separator (1)
        • Separator (2)
        • Separator (3)
        • Shutdown Separator
        • Voltage Profile of Cell Overcharge with Shutdown Separator
        • Gel Polymer Electrolyte (GPE)
        • Ceramic Composite Separators
        • Benefits of Ceramic Composite Separators
        • Example of Composite Separator (1)
        • Example of Composite Separator (2)
        • Heat Resistant Layer (HRL)
      • BMS
        • Battery Management System (BMS)
        • BMS Monitoring Functions
        • BMS Output
        • BMS Safety Functions (1)
        • BMS Safety Functions (2)
  2. Understanding Battery Failure Modes
    1. Understanding Battery Failures
      • General
        • Why do Battery Failures Still Occur?
        • Cell Failures have Been Observed in Many Situations
        • Internal Short
        • Spontaneous Internal Short (1)
        • Spontaneous Internal Short (2)
        • Internal Short Circuit Severity
        • Types of Internal Short Circuit
        • Different Short Circuit Current Paths Have Different Resistance
        • Why are Type 2 Shorts More Violent?
      • 3 Case Studies: Chevy Volt, Tesla, Boeing 787
        • Case Study #1 – Chevy Volt
        • NHTSA Side Crash Test Results on Chevy Volt
        • NHTSA Side Crash Test Results on Chevy Volt - Chevy Volt Fire Damaged Three Adjacent Vehicles
        • NHTSA Side Crash Test Results on Chevy Volt DoT Conclusions and Recommendations
        • Case Study #2 – Tesla Battery Fires
        • Tesla Battery Fires
        • Tesla Battery Fires: Tesla’s Response
        • Case Study #3 - Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures NTSB Presentation Slide (1)
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures NTSB Presentation Slide (2)
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures NTSB Presentation Slide (3)
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures NTSB Presentation Slide (4)
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures -  The Two Thermal Events Were of Different Magnitude
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures NTSB Final Report (1)
        • Boeing Dreamliner 787 Li-Ion Battery Failures NTSB Final Report (2)
        • Understanding Battery failures – Summary
    2. Li-Ion Battery Safety & Abuse Characterization Tests
      • Thermal Runaway Analysis Techniques
        • Thermal Analysis – Overview
        • Thermal Analysis Techniques (ARC)
        • Thermal Analysis Techniques (DSC)
        • Thermal Analysis Techniques (Thermal Ramp)
        • Thermal Runaway Temperature Grouping
        • Thermal Runaway - Temperature Stages 1 & 2
        • Thermal Runaway - Temperature Stages 2 & 3
        • Cell-Level Thermal Events Affecting Thermal Runaway
      • Abuse Response of Cell Materials
        • Anode (Negative Electrode)
          • Cell Cross Section
          • Anode Decomposition Reactions during Thermal Runaway
          • Li-Ion Interphases are Complex
          • Material Properties of Anode Affect Onset of Thermal Runaway
        • Cathode (Positive Electrode)
          • Cathode Reactions
          • Cathode Performance Properties
          • Cathode Reactions Occur at High-Temperature Regime (Stages 2 and 3)
          • Small DSC Peaks Below 200°C
          • Full Cell Thermal Runaway Cathode ARC Comparisons
          • Thermal Runaway Cathode Comparisons (Expanded View)
          • Heat Output During Overcharge For Different Oxide Cathode Chemistries
          • Mass Loss From Oxygen Release From Decomposing Cathodes
          • How Much Oxygen Is Available?
          • How Much Oxygen Is Available?
          • What can we burn with 0.06 mols of O2?
          • Solvent Combustion by O2 from Cathode
          • Thermal Ramp Shows Same Ordering of Response for Cells with Reduced or No Cathode Oxygen Release
          • Individual Electrode Contribution to Full Cell Thermal Runaway
          • Two of the Most Thermally Stable Cathodes: LiFePO4 and LiMn2O4
        • Electrolyte
          • Electrolyte Composition
          • Electrolyte Decomposition at Elevated Temperatures
          • Proposed Diethyl Carbonate Decomposition (DEC)
          • Gas Evolution is a Critical Property Affecting Safety
          • Gas Evolution and Composition
          • Gas Evolution for Cells of Different Cathode Chemistries
          • Electrolyte  Decomposition Products are Flammable
          • Example of Overcharge Test of 84 V Prototype Li-Ion Module
          • Comparison of Stored Electrical Energy and Energy Released from Decomposition Reactions
          • Electrolyte Additives
          • Fire Triangle (1)
          • Fire Triangle (2)
          • Electrolyte Flammability
          • Flash Point (FP)
          • Fire Point = Auto-Ignition Temperature
          • Self-Extinguishing Times (SETs)
          • Flash Point Determination
          • Flame Retardant Additives
          • Flame Retardant Additives –Test  
          • Flame Retardant Studies at ZSW (Ulm, Germany)
          • Effect of Additives on FP and SET of Electrolyte
          • Non-Flammable Electrolyte Test Results from ZSW
          • Flame Retardant Issues
        • Separator
          • Separator Failure & Internal Short Circuit
          • Separator Evaluation Platform (SEP) at Sandia
          • Separator AC Impedance During Thermal Ramp
          • Separator Voltage Integrity
          • Thermal runaway during overcharge due to separator failure following separator shutdown
          • Applied Voltage after Shutdown causes Separator Breakdown and Cell Thermal Runaway
          • Do Shutdown Separators Increase the Safety of a Large Battery?
      • Abuse Response of Cells and Batteries
        • General Considerations
          • Types of Abuse Tolerance Tests
          • Testing Philosophy
        • Electrical Abuse Tests
          • Electrical Abuse Tests
          • Overcharge Response
          • Overcharge Cell Test Setup at Sandia
          • Overcharge Greatly Increases Reaction Rate and Energy
          • Overcharge Effects
          • Overcharge in Controlled Atmosphere
          • Overcharge Heat Generation with Different Cathodes
          • Overdischarge
          • Sources of Electrical Short Circuits
          • Desired  External Cell Short Circuit Response
          • Example of Module  Short Circuit Failure
          • Propagation of Cell Failure
          • Module Short Circuit
          • Internal Short Circuit Tests – Status
          • UL Blunt Nail Crush (BNC) Test Method Overview
          • Short Mechanism of BNC Test
          • Critical Test Parameters for Blunt Nail Crush
          • UL BNC Test Strengths and Weaknesses
          • Forced Internal Short Circuit Test JIS C 08714 (2007)
          • JIS Forced Internal Short Circuit Test
          • JIS C 0874 Test Strengths and Weaknesses
          • NREL/NASA Internal Short Circuit Device Design
          • Anode Active Material to Cathode Current Collector Short
          • 2.4-Ah 18650 Cell
          • CT of ISC Device Inside an 18650 Jelly Roll
          • ISC Device Strengths and Weaknesses
          • Prognosis on Internal Short Circuit Tests in Development
        • Thermal Abuse Tests
          • Thermal Abuse Tests
          • Thermal Abuse Test Methods
          • Stability During Fuel Fire
          • Video of Fuel Fire
          • Cycling Without Thermal Management
        • Mechanical Abuse Tests
          • Mechanical Abuse Test Methods
          • Controlled Crush
          • Shock Tests
          • Vibration
          • Vibration Test on Battery Pack
          • Drop Tests
          • Immersion
          • Nail Test
          • Limitations of Nail Test
          • Cell Design Trick to Pass Nail Penetration Test
    3. Propagation of Thermal Runaway of Single Cell
      • Propagation Resistance Test
      • Failure Propagation
      • Example of Propagation of Cell Failure
      • Failure Propagation Test Goal
      • Thermal Runaway Trigger Methods: Which is best for battery testing?
      • Design Priorities for Reducing Hazard Severity from Failure of a Single Cell
      • Techniques Used to Reduce Probability of Propagation
    4. Abuse Tolerance Simulation
      • Simulation of Abuse
      • Simulation Study of an Internal Short Circuit
      • Propagation of Thermal Runaway – Pack
      • Thermal Abuse Investigation on the Boeing Dreamliner 787 Battery (1)
      • Thermal Abuse Investigation on the Boeing Dreamliner 787 Battery (2)
    5. Effect of Cell and Pack Design on Abuse Response
      • Effect of Cell and Pack Design on Safety and Abuse Tolerance
      • Cell Design Choices
      • Safety Enhancement and its Cost
      • Intrinsic Overcharge Protection Methods
      • Example of Additive: Overcharge Shuttle from Air Products
      • Cell Design Choices
      • Pack Design
      • Pack Design Choices Affecting Safety (1)
      • Pack Design Choices Affecting Safety (2)
      • Potential Internal Short Circuit Protection
  3. Safety Validation: Abuse Testing Methods & Procedures
    1. General
      • Organizations that Publish Safety Test Standards
      • Test Methods And Conditions –Comparison Between Standards
      • Battery Safety Standards are Being—Developed By Many Organizations
    2. Shipping Procedures
      • Shipping Lithium & Li-Ion Batteries
      • Heightened Concern after Plane Crashes in 2010 & 2011
      • Asiana Airlines Flight 991 & NTSB Response
      • Shipping Lithium & Li-Ion Batteries Limited to Cargo Aircraft
      • Calculating Equivalent Lithium Content (for Li Ion) (1)
      • Calculating Equivalent Lithium Content (for Li Ion) (2)
      • Lithium/Li-Ion Battery Transportation Regulations for International Shipping
      • United Nations  Battery Shipping Standard
      • Cells and Batteries Required for UN “T” Tests
      • UN Pass/Fail Criteria
      • Current IATA Limits for “Small Batteries”
      • Current IATA Shipping Procedure
    3. Pass/Fail vs. Safety Characterization Tests
      • Approaches to Test Method Development
      • Characterization Tests (1)
      • Characterization Tests (2)
      • Pass/Fail Tests
    4. Test Procedure Comparisons
      • Status of Test Harmonization
      • Comparison Table #1 – Electrical Abuse Tests
      • Comparison Table #2 – Mechanical Abuse Tests
      • Comparison Table #3 – Thermal Abuse Tests
    5. Functional Safety
      • Functional Safety (1)
      • Functional Safety (2)
      • Functional Safety ISO 26262 (1)
      • Functional Safety ISO 26262 (2)
      • Can Safety Test Results be Manipulated?
      • How to Minimize Manipulation of Safety Test Results
    6. What’s Missing
      • What is Completely Missing from Safety Standards?
      • What Important Tests Need to be Improved in Safety Test Standards?
  4. Summary and Conclusions
    • Summary
    • Future Directions & Needs (1)
    • Future Directions & Needs (2)
  5. Appendix: Organizations that Publish Safety Test Standards